APA Format


APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association applied to resources used in a research paper. The use of APA citation style includes reference citations in text that point to an alphabetical reference list.

Reference citations in texts imply the use of essential information to identify a source and it includes the last name of the author, the year of publication and page number (if the direct quotation or specific part of a source is used) parenthesized. The examples of reference citations in texts are as follows:
Author's name in text Dover has expressed this concern (2001).
Author's name in reference This concern has been expressed (Dover 2001).
Multiple authors of a work This hypothesis (Bradley and Rogers 2004) suggested this theory (Sumner, Reichl, and Waugh 2003).
Specific parts of a source Williams alludes to this premise (1998, p.145).
Two works cited (Burns 2002, Thomas 2003)
Corporate authors (United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa 1997)

Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title when citing it in text:
as stated by the presidential commission (Report 1994).
Online source with numbered paragraphs (Fox, pars. 4-5)

The reference page contains the list of all sources arranged in alphabetical order and containing all publishing information, including the author(s)/editor(s) name, date of publication parenthesized, the complete title italicized with only first word of the title capitalized, edition, if indicated, place of publication, the shortened name of publisher. It is recommended to use an ampersand (&), instead of “and”, when using multiple authors; to use p. and pp. to designate page numbers.

Examples:

One author:
Nabokov, V. (1955). Lolita. New York: Putnam.

Another work, same author:
---. (1999). Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. New York: Knopf.

Two authors:
Cross, S., & C. Hoffman. (2004). Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience. New York: Guggenheim Museum; London: Thames & Hudson.

Three authors:
Lowi, T., B. Ginsberg, & S. Jackson. (1994). Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton.

More than three authors:
Gilman, S., et al. (1993). Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P.

Corporate author:
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. (1973). A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

Multivolume work:
Morison, S. E., H. S. Commager, and W.E. Leuchtenburg. (1980). The Growth of the American Republic. 2 vols. New York: Oxford UP.

Article or chapter from a book:
Nielsen, J.S. (2004). "European Culture and Islam." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. (pp.1126-45). Ed. Richard C. Martin. New York: Macmillan Reference-Thomson/Gale.

Journal article:
Shefter, M. (1992). "Institutional Conflict over Presidential Appointments: The Case of Clarence Thomas." PS: Political Science & Politics 25(4), 676-79.


In a journal article 25(4) reads Volume 25, issue 4, which is followed by the date of publication and page number.

Online book within a scholarly project:
Frost, R. (1999). North of Boston. Project Bartleby. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Retrieved 29 October 1999 from http://www.bartleby.com/118/index.html.

Article from an online encyclopedia:
"Einstein, Albert." (1999). Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 April 2004 from http://search.eb.com/bol/topic?eu=108494&sctn=1.