CMS Format

CMS citation style refers to the rules and conventions of the Chicago Manual Style applied to resources used in a research paper. The use of CMS citation style includes in-text citations that point to an alphabetical bibliography.

In-text citation implies the use of essential information to identify a source and it includes the last name of the author, the year of publication and page number (without p.) parenthesized. The examples of in-text citations are as follows:
Author's name in text Dover has expressed this concern (2001, 122).
Author's name in reference This concern has been expressed (Dover 2001,122).
Multiple authors of a work This hypothesis (Bradley and Rogers 2004, 144) suggested this theory (Sumner, Reichl, and Waugh 2003, 172).
Specific parts of a source Williams alludes to this premise (1998, 145).
Two works cited (Burns 2002, Thomas 2003)
Corporate authors (United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa 1997, 225)

Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the work's title or a shortened version of the title when citing it in text:
as stated by the presidential commission (Report 1994, 110).
Online source with numbered paragraphs (Fox, pars. 4-5)

Journal or encyclopaedia article are fully referenced in the text: An editorial in New York Times, July 30 1990 took the position that …

The bibliography page contains the list of all sources arranged in alphabetical order and containing all publishing information, including the author(s)/editor(s) name, date of publication, the complete title italicized with only first word of the title capitalized, edition, if indicated, place of publication, the shortened name of publisher. Journal, newspaper or encyclopedia articles are not included into the bibliography.


One author:
Nabokov, V. 1955. Lolita. New York: Putnam.

Another work, same author:
---. 1999. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. New York: Knopf.

Two authors:
Cross, S., & C. Hoffman. 2004. Bruce Nauman: Theaters of Experience. New York: Guggenheim Museum; London: Thames & Hudson.

Three authors:
Lowi, T., B. Ginsberg, & S. Jackson. 1994. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton.

More than three authors:
Gilman, S., et al. 1993. Hysteria beyond Freud. Berkeley: U of California P.

Corporate author:
Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. 1973. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

Multivolume work:
Morison, S. E., H. S. Commager, and W.E. Leuchtenburg. 1980. The Growth of the American Republic. 2 vols. New York: Oxford UP.

Online book within a scholarly project:
Frost, R. 1999. North of Boston. Project Bartleby. Ed. Steven van Leeuwen. Available from (

Article from an online encyclopedia:
"Einstein, Albert." 1999. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available from (