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Classroom Behavior Management


Many factors influence study process. Physical environment is extremely important for successful study process. Classroom layout influences study process as well as some other characteristics of the classroom. Classroom layout assumes right arrangement of the working space and includes the arrangement of desks and boards. Physical environment of the classroom can be a big help for the teacher. It can also be a source of problems if not used properly. Additional materials also play an important role in the physical environment of the classroom. Additional visionary aides can become good help for teacher as they attract pupils’ attention and create necessary atmosphere in the classroom. As states Frank Garcia, a teacher with many years of teaching experience: "Basic bulletin boards are not enough. I believe in a very colorful classroom with posters, functional bulletin boards, and other 'interesting' items to enhance the environment, such as a small refrigerator, TV, and a stereo system with a CD player" (Johnston, 1998, p.4). Each teacher can realize his own approach to the study process while organizing a physical environment of the classroom. Latest research proves that things which surround people influence their emotional state and mental processes. This is very true for study process. Right organizing of physical environment in the classroom can have positive influence on study process. I believe that classroom environment should reflect learner-centered approach. Everything in the classroom should be organized for the pupils to feel safe and comfortable in the classroom. This way comfort and safety should be the main requirements for the classroom layout. Creative approach is another important component of good classroom layout. Bright and colorful details help students to feel interested and motivated while they are in the classroom. “Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predisposition, and physiology operate concurrently and interactively as the entire system interacts and exchanges information with its environment” (Caine & Caine, 1997, p. 104).
2. Rules and procedures are another important component of study process. They are designed in order to fulfill the goals of the education and to provide safety for learners and teachers. Well-designed these rules and regulations must become a basis of teacher’s success. Discipline in the classroom is an important issue which influences the entire study process. Norms and rules of discipline should be defined by the teacher during the first lessons. Students should strictly follow these rules. Persistence and just attitude of the teacher can finally persuade pupils that discipline is a necessary part of study process. Rules, procedures and regulations applied for each study situation should be determined by the goals of education. All rules and norms will be useless if they do not serve to one and ultimate purpose – optimize study process and help teachers and pupils reach their common goals. Regular attendance of the classes and timely arriving in the classroom should be the basis of study process. If there are no special conditions teachers should strictly insists that their pupils should be present at all lessons and that they come in the classroom in time. Grading system is another component of the study process. Managing the work of absent students is another important component of classroom management. First of all it’s necessary to set up rules in advance and to inform the students about the tasks they should accomplish even if they miss classes. The teacher should have a number of written assignments for all lessons, which can most effectively replace classroom activities. Checking up these assignments can be accompanied with oral check of students knowledge.
Measurement and evaluation are necessary components of the study process as they provide necessary feedback and give teacher an idea about the level of mastering the subject and create motivation for students Measurement consists of collection of the information about the level of knowledge and skills students acquired during the definite period and this period can be different. Evaluation comes after measuring and implies making judgments about the degree of students’ knowledge and his or her learning level. Measurement can be presented in several kinds of activities. First of all activities can be divided into two major groups – oral and written.
Only combination of both, oral and written measurement activities must be applied to evaluate students work. Measurement can also be performed in the form of tests, exams, exercise, writing papers, solving problems, answering questions and presentations. I think that all types of activities must be applied in order to get a holistic picture of student’s level. We should use different types of activities because of several reasons. First of all, when students get used to one definite type of activity, they will probably center on it and this can have bad consequences for other types of activities. From the other side, it’s scientifically proved that different students perform better in different types of assessments because of their born abilities. Only using all types of measurement activities we can be sure that we get a real picture of students learning level.
3.Student responsibility is a necessary condition of learning process. Only this way internal motivation, which makes study process affective, can be achieved. While planning the classroom activities and home works teachers should keep in mind that old way of learning – teacher centered learning- where most part of the work was done by the teacher and pupils’ role was passive is not in use any more. Nowadays it’s common to stress on the necessity of pupils active role in the process of studying and the teacher should give them this opportunity. Such change provides pupils involvement into the activities and makes them less dependent. This method can be used teaching any subjects. English, graphics, system control, food, textiles, resistant materials, Mathematics are learnt much better if the teacher uses different learning styles during the lessons. An example of using such a type of learning style is a request to pupils to make their own exercise to illustrate the new material and then to accomplish it. Using the old methods, the teacher would give the exercise for pupils but using the new method the teacher asks the pupils to invent such an exercise themselves. If the material is too difficult for the pupils’ level the teacher can ask to prepare the exercise for younger pupils as to present the new material for the first time. This method greatly increases motivation, pupils’ self-esteem (which also deals directly with motivation). This method changes the teachers’ role in the studying process, makes the teacher more a conductor than the first violin in the orchestra. The teacher becomes an observer and assistant in the process of education and pupils get active role and can define the direction of this process. Such an approach needs more planning from the teacher and investigative approach when planning the lessons and can be difficult in the beginning but all these counterparts will be compensated by high results and deep pupils’ involvement.
Homework is a form of independent practice. Homework plays an important role in the learning process. It’s main aim is to consolidate skills and knowledge received in the classroom. In addition accomplishing homework helps to increase the students’ responsibility, get additional information and develop skills of independent work. Positive effect homework of the learning process can be neglected if it is not done properly. Constant repetition creates the best opportunity for the successful comprehension of the new material. Well-organized process of home learning creates good opportunities for this constant repetition. While accomplishing homework students learn to overcome difficulties and obstacles, learn to count on their own abilities and thus they learn to be independent. Students become more attentive in the classroom knowing they will have to make familiar tasks in home alone. Homework is an important element of the learning process but it should correspond to the number of basic requirements in order to be effective and to fulfill its function in the best way. One of the main requirements to the homework is regularity. Homework should become a habit for the students in order to make them used to work independently. Homework should also be fixed according to the students’ age, their knowledge level and subject learnt. It should not consume too much time and should not require more than two hours to accomplish it.
4. Classroom behavior is one of the most important parts of the study process. Good behavior of the students is a basis of effective study process. The choice of teaching methods determines student’s behavior. Teachers should choose techniques and strategies which would enable them to control pupils’ behavior. Specialists state that classroom behavior is usually formed on the early stages of learning process. Most of the pupils need to receive distinct and exact instructions from their teachers. Usually students do not know all requirements of new teachers that is why they will feel more confident and responsible if their teachers explain them all the requirements from the very beginning of their interaction. A code of conduct consists of rules and regulation which helps the teacher to distinguish behavioral norms in the classroom. That is why it is so important to form right behavior patterns in the beginning of the study process.
Pupils with emotional and behavioral difficulties may cause the most serious problems in the classroom. These pupils usually require more supervision and support. Understanding inner driving motives which cause behavioral difficulties is important for dealing with them. Treating each pupil as an individual and personality is important while defining the strategies of dealing with deviant behavior. Different classes and groups of pupils may require different approaches and methods when dealing with them. It is also necessary to remember that pupils are very sensitive to behavior of authority figures, such as teachers. This way if the teacher follows norms and regulations pupils are more likely to join him or her. Praise and punishment is another mighty weapon which can influence pupils’ behavior. Modern pedagogical science more and more turns to the system based on reward and praise. Positive motivation and reinforcement help pupils to realize what teacher requires from them.
Inappropriate behavior in the classroom often becomes a source of problems for both, teachers and students. Different methods should be used in the case when students experience behavior problems which interfere with the study process. For example, a pupil who bothers his classmates wants to attract attention of other people to his personality. This can be explained by the lack of self-confidence. He or she does not feel that other people appreciate him and treat him like an interesting personality and turns to disruptive behavior in order to get this attention by any means. Lack of motivation is another problem which often become the reason of bad classroom behavior. Motivation is usually defined as an inner move, which helps people to do things. Motivation can increase productivity level in several times and making people motivated is one of the most important skills of a good learner and developed personality. Lack of motivation may also depend on the lack of self-esteem From the behavior description we can set primary goals of dealing with demonstrative behavior and lack of motivation. These goals are: developing of adequate self-esteem; raising of motivation; learning to control his behavior.

5. It is necessary to emphasize the important role of motivation in the process of education. More and more methodologies try to find factors and reasons which influence the process of educations and make it effective. Increasing interest and participation of the government in the studying process and social order which demand good professionals put high requirements for teacher and teaching process. It is necessary for the teachers to control the learning agenda and at the same time bring their personal experiences to the educational process to inspire children and to make their motivation stronger. Factors which influence pupil’s motivation and personal commitment are studied by many scholars and are available now for the teachers who want to increase their professional level and to make the educational process more effective for both – pupils and teachers.
Pupils achieve better results in friendly and supportive surrounding. This surrounding has a positive influence on the motivation.
It was proved that using different learning styles has a direct influence on the pupil motivation.
All the pupils have different types of perception of the reality. Some learn better thought doing and touching things, others through listening and others looking at the things. These are three main types of perception – kinesthetic (includes pupils who learn better by doing things), auditory (who learn better through listening) and visual (perceive the visual information best of all) learners. It’s absolutely necessary to use different learning styles in order to involve all three types in the studying process and to provide harmonious development of all the pupils and let them achieve better results during the studying process.
Newest researches prove that taking into account the born pupils abilities can increase the level of their perception in several times and make the educational process pleasant and more effective for both – pupils and their teachers. The learning process should be organized so that the teacher could use different learning styles in order to underline the uniqueness of each individual. Leaning styles oriented to kinesthetic learner, auditory learners and visual learners should be used in order to achieve this goal.
Learning though the learning styles preferred by each individual provides higher motivation which logically leads to the improvements of learning results and exam results.

References
Linn, R., and Gronlund, N. (2000). Measurement and assessment in teaching (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Johnston, C.A., (1998). Let Me Learn. Corwin Press Inc., California, p. 4.
Kephart, N.C.(1971) The Slow Learner in the Classroom. Charles Merrill, Columbus, OH.
Sternberg, R. (1988). The Triarchic Mind: A New Theory of Intelligence. NY: Viking Press.
Cooper, Harris; Lindsay, James J; & Nye, Barbara. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting-style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 464-487.
Eisenberg, M. B. & Berkowitz, R. E. (1990). Information problem solving: The Big Six Skills approach to library and information skills instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Epstein, J. L., Salinas, K. C., & Jackson, V. E. (1995) Manual for Teachers: Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) Language Arts, Science/Health, and Math Interactive Homework in the Middle Grades and Prototype Activities for TIPS Language Arts, Science/Health, and Math for Grades 6,7, and 8.

Caine, Renate Nummela & Caine, Geoffrey (1997). Education on the Edge of Possibility, Association for Supervision & Curriculum Deve.

 
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