home contact us site map
Custom essays writing Custom essay
Home
Terms of sale
F.A.Q.
Order Essay
Free essays
Links
Contact Us

PRICES

Save money custom essay
completed within two weeks $10.55 /page

Economical custom essay
completed within one week $12.55 /page

Regular custom essay
completed within 96
hours $15.55 /page

Fast custom essay
completed within 48
hours $18.55 /page

Emergency custom essay
completed within 24
hours $24.55 /page

Rush custom essay
completed within12
hours $34.55 /page

Flash custom essay
completed within 8
hours $39.55 /page

 

Marxism

Marxism is a philosophy that was named for Karl Marx, it is also known as scientific socialism. Marxism has had a great influence on the development of the contemporary society, and modern communism is based on its main principles.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels’ theory is based on the Dictatorship of the Proletariat and Proletarian Internationalism. The philosophical method of Marxism is dialectical materialism, which is based on the Hegel’s theory of the dialectical idealism. Dialectical materialism presumes economic determinant to be the prima determinant in history. It is this method that concerns the history of society to be the “history of struggle”. “A specific class could rule only so long as it best represented the economically productive forces of society; when it became outmoded it would be destroyed and replaced” (Marx, 234).
The notion class derives from the attitude of some social group to the means of production. Marx indicates several social classes: the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the landlords, the farmers and the peasantry and others. The proletariat is “those individuals who sell their labor power, and therefore add value to the products, and who, in the capitalist mode of production, do not own the means of production” (Marx, 145). The bourgeoisie presents the social class which owns the means of production and so it exploits the proletariat. The bourgeoisie class could be further divided into the wealthy bourgeoisie and the petit bourgeoisie. The second group could either employ workers or work themselves. They usually presented trade workers, small owners or land-holding peasants. Marx claimed that this class of bourgeoisie would soon become the proletariat. The landlords present an ancient class which used to be important earlier and now this class only remains us about its wealth and power. The peasantry and farmers are a disorganized class, which is unable to change something. Karl Marx predicted its disappearance. According to Marx the proletariat, which consists of the industrial workers, is the only true productive class, which can develop economy and so rule the country.
The main principles of Marx’ collective works are based on class consciousness, mode of production means of production, ideology, historical materialism, exploitation, political economy and some others. Class consciousness presumes the ability of a social class to act in its own rational interests. The means of production include the means of labor and the subject of labor. Means of production do not produce anything. They require labor power in order to produce something. These means include machines, tools, equipment, raw materials. Marxism is based on the assumption that workers can not handle the results of their work because capitalists possess all means of production.( Kolakowski, 1998).
Marx developed the concept of historical materials though he never used this term. Historical materialism is based on the idea that the development changes of human society are caused by the changes of means to life. He put factors which influenced the society on the economic background and regarded them from the economical point of view. Marx used the term political economy in order to explain the conditions under which capitalist system has been developed. Political economy became a study of ways humans organize material, distribute the products of activity.
Marx defined exploitation as the main reason of social injustice. He defined exploitation of one class by another as a key feature of capitalism and free market. Capitalists gain their profit from the difference between the value of the product and actual wages that workers receive. In this way workers get less than their labor costs in reality and this makes it possible for the capitalist class to gain additional profit. This is the reason capitalists class becomes richer and working class becomes poorer. Workers produce goods and services but final result belongs to the owners of plants and factories. Labor of workers is not paid accordingly and this finally leads to the alienation of their work. Marx defined alienation as a main result of capitalism. These ideas were suitable during the time when Marx created his philosophy. During that time workers really did not receive appropriate pay for their labor and exploitation of the working class by the class of capitalists was evident. The situation has changed since than and nowadays we can not talk about the exploitation of working class in the countries of Western Europe and America. Workers in the United States of America get up to 80 per cent of the cost of their labor in contrast to the not developed countries where workers get only about 10 per cent of the cost of their labor. Economical structure represented in contemporary America can be classified as developed capitalism. Despite there is a distinction between rich and poor, at the same time there is not exploitation of the working class. It is evident that we can not talk about exploitation and alienation in the United States of America. Since these basic concepts of Marxism are not represented in the US it is evident that this teaching can not be used in this country. (Sowell, 1985) There is another problem, which may appear with Marxism in the United States. Marxism and Socialism often appear as foreign and even hostile ideologies for American citizens. Long period of confrontation with the Soviet Union, where Marxism used to be a leading ideology caused a lot of misinterpretations of this teaching. The United States of America is country based on democratic traditions. Revolutionary struggle and struggle against slavery proved desire to follow democratic ideals. Marxism and Socialism as a dominant regime of utilitarian states, such the USSR, China, Cuba, made American citizens to associate it with Utilitarism. That is one of the reasons this ideology will be hard to follow in democratic American society. A vivid example of utilitarism is empires which incarnated regimes of social injustice and governmental control over economy. All there factors taken together give enough reasons to think that the teaching of Marxism can not be suitable for the United States of America. Economical reasons, such as free market and private property, which make the fundamental American liberties guaranteed by the constitution, and ideological improperty of Marxism for the American society, give enough reasons to think that this teaching will not fit into American political and ideological system.


Works Cited:
1. Anderson, P. “Considerations on Western Marxism.” Cambridge University Press, 1976.
2. Avineri, Shlomo. “The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx.” Cambridge University Press. 1968.
3. Crepanti, E; S. Zamagna. An Outline of the History of Economic Thought, 1993.
4. Karl Marx, Grundrisse, trans. Martin Nicolaus, New York 1973.
5. Kolakowski, Leszek. Main Currents in Marxism. New York, 1998.
6. Parkes, Henry Bamford. Marxism: An Autopsy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999.
7. Sojo, Cleto A. “Venezuela’s Chavez Closes World Social Forum with Call to Transcend Capitalism.” Venezuela Analysis, 31 Jan 2005.
8. Sowell, Thomas. “Marxism: Philosophy and Economics.” New York: William Morrow, 1985


 

 
Copyright 2003 Custom essay

 

 

MLA format l APA format l CMS format l CBE format

Essay Writing | Research Paper Writing | Term Paper Writing | Coursework Writing | Dissertation Writing

Free Essays | Essay Types