Why do organizations attempt to measure the behavior of their employees? Have more modern methods of appraisal removed the problems associated with rating and ranking?

Why do organizations attempt to measure the behavior of their employees? Have more modern methods of appraisal removed the problems associated with rating and ranking?

Table of contents:
1. Introduction
2. Particularities of Iraq war
3. Geopolitical and economical aspects of war in Iraq
4. Conclusion

Introduction
Three years ago President Bush starting the war in Iraq had a direct and ambitious task to stabilize the situation in the Near East and in Arabian world in general. The invasion and further occupation of Iraq were considered to be of a main importance, as they would liberate the country and change life of Iraqis nation. By the estimates of the president’s administration the war expenses had not to be great and the military campaign had to be relatively short. In addition, another important purpose of the invasion was stabilization of the oil prices and control over the oil one of the richest countries in hydrocarbon minerals. The primary ambitions of overthrowing the regime of Suddam Hussein and establishing democracy in the after war country of Iraq were ruined by the harsh realities of the civil war and resistance of different military groups supported by terrorist organizations and religious extremists against coalition. The losses of the American army and allies exceed the number of 2000 long before the year of 2006. Today, after three years of prolonged conflict in Iraq the military campaign seems to be pointless for a number of reasons: neither the oil crisis nor Middle east major problems are solved. The oil prices skyrocketed in these three years hitting $75 per barrel last week, the weapon of mass destruction (bacteriological, chemical or nuclear) are not found in Iraq, Iraqis nation is not ready to accept democratic changes and democratic government proposed by Americans.


Particularities of Iraq war
The development of the events and the situation in Iraq nowadays shows that American administration had undervalued the possible development of the events. It’s generally accepted that life of the Iraqis people had changed for better because of the constant financing of the country’s economy by the USA and different types of foreign investments in country’s infrastructure and oil industry. As a result the Iraqis campaign appeared to be much more expensive than it was planned before the invasion. Allies relied that scenario of Afghanistan will not repeat, as Iraq is not a mountainous country with relief, which is the most favorable for guerilla war tactics, as it’s a plane desert, but nevertheless it did not help much.
If at the begging of the campaign in Iraq the sum for the reconstruction of the country was planned to be about 1.7 billion dollars than just six month later the administration requested 20 billions more and it confessed that during the year of 2004 the total expenses would exceed 75 billion dollars. By the end of the 2005 the total costs of war exceeded 200 billion dollars and continue to grow as 4.8 billion dollars are spent monthly on this war.
Besides the expenses on the reconstruction of the country the military campaign appeared to be not so simple as it looked in spring of 2003. The resistance of military groups of Iraqis appeared to be a serious problem. From the very beginning Washington did not take into consideration the possibility of resistance from the side of Iraqis military as well as from the side of armored groups of religious and terrorist extremists who use terror and guerilla practices. The tragic results of such under evaluation of enemy forces are obvious in daily news report which witness dozens of deaths nearly every day in different parts of the country: collisions with Iraqis guerillas and terrorist acts against peaceful civilians. The scenario of Iraq in many respects turned into a well known scenario of Vietnam and scenario of Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, where invaders didn’t face any strong resistance at the beginning of military campaign, but as a result they were involved in severe guerilla war against hidden enemy- local population, which every second could strike back. The most terrible thing in the war in Iraq is that local population remained disintegrated and different local leading clans, religious groups (Shiites and Sunnites) are not able or simply don’t want to find a consensus which will promote stability and ability of Iraqis to manage their country in a democratic way. Continuing confrontations of Shiite and Sunnite population as well as discrimination of Kurds during Suddam Hussein’s regime lead to the creation of political vacuum in the country, which was united only by the power of weapon and violence. Today, every clan understanding the opportunities of economical potential of this oil rich country will protect only his own interests and will try to satisfy only his own ambitions rather than to look for compromise.
The expectations from the military campaign that included overthrowing of Hussein and establishment of pro-American democratic government, which will crate relative stability and will prevent the spread of anti-American moods in the Near east on the hand with terrorism had not come true. War in Iraq only promoted the spread of terrorism of the territory of this country, which in the past differed by stability and order, even though it was based on despotism of Hussein’s regime. Nevertheless, some specialists mark that success in the establishing control over the Arabian world is visual as Libya stopped its nuclear program, but the expectations about solving the conflict between Israel and Palestine didn’t come true.
The start of the military campaign also created a very complicated paradox which only destroyed shakable peace on Iraqis land: as both the supporters and the opponents of the war in Iraq understand quite well what will happen after Allies will withdraw troops from occupied territories. Such vacuum of power will be quickly filled with civil war, the participants of which would get an impressive support from the different powers of the Islamic world. A vivid example of the following scenario is post war Afghanistan from 1989 to 2001, where the failure of the Soviet troops and their removal from the country gave the impulse for a new civil war and establishment of the Taliban regime and northern territories, which are only controlled by heroin mafia. Besides, Taliban with its loyal policy towards Muslim military fundamentalism created favorable conditions for the spread of Islamist fighters on Balkans, Northern Caucasus and Near east and resulting a series of terrorist acts around the world. But to fight guerillas which are often hidden under the mask of peaceful civilians is much more difficult task than to defeat a poorly prepared and demoralized Iraqis army. It’s understood quite well by a new leader of Iraqis opposition Sadrah, who united all existing groups, unsatisfied with American occupation.


Geopolitical and economical aspects of war in Iraq
The government officials admit that problems, faced by American politics in after war Iraq, taking into consideration geopolitical situation, the threat of ethnic conflicts and resistance as well as political problems of governing on the occupied territory, are more serious and difficult than those faced by them in Haiti or Balkans, when the USA intervened into local conflicts; as Iraq is a very serious geopolitical place in the Muslim world. Being rich in oil and standing apart from the major fundamentalist processes which took place in last 25-30 years it saved relative political neutrality at the same time trying to turn into a local military leader, but failed and lost its positions for a long time. Today, in the world where constant threat of Muslim terrorism exist and where there exists a considerable shortage of energetic resources domination over Iraq is an issue of primary importance for world superpowers. And it’s even more important that the driving role is played not by the governments but by transcontinental corporations, which in many respects determine world politics, according to their strategic economical interests.
That’s why it’s important to understand the war in Iraq not a war against terrorism, or war against Sadam Hussein, who perhaps had weapon of mass destruction, but it’s mainly the war for the economical domination (it’s even better to say war for preserving economical domination) and control over rich oil resources of Near East. Such point is clearly stated in the book “Why are we at war”, by Norman Mailer.The thesis of the author is obvious from the first pages of the book- American big corporations initiated imperialist aggression, hiding their lusty plans and thirst for power by slogans of protection of democracy and spreading ideas of western humanism. But at the same time it’s an open intervention against national sovereignty of different countries that do not accept the doctrine of financial dependence upon capital of superpowers. Mailer lets us to know that in past decades the behavior of American big business had changed both abroad and inside the USA, as its interests are demonstrated not only on the arena of third world countries, but also in the main institutions of White house and Congress dictating political will to the whole nation. The main problem, which Mailer touches, is absence of strong opposition to the policy of corporations as “an alchemy of Left and Right to confound the corporate center” (p. 101) is not observed in any branches of power.
In “Why are we at war?” Mailer describes different modern American tendencies which turned to be obvious today and have high importance for the nation and its future: the war on terrorism, growing influence of big business on world politics, penetration of capital into politics as these tendencies are common for the majority of super-states nowadays not including the USA only. Mailer also devotes a lot of attention to modern political and social values of Americans, which in many aspects seem to be more than absurd and pointless as a result of opinion manipulation and pan-American propaganda. Mailer also shows the real, global face of the conflict of Palestinians and Israelites, which in many respects is demonstration of resistance of Arabian world to Western expansion on the Middle East.
As the role of the USA in these processes is leading one, Mailer is worried about the destiny of its country and about his countrymen writing the following: “When we think we are nearest to God, we could be assisting the Devil (p. 72)…I must say it again: In a country where values are collapsing, patriotism becomes the handmaiden to totalitarianism. The country becomes the religion. We are asked to live in a state of religious fervor: Love America! Love it because America has become a substitute for religion. But to love your country indiscriminately means that critical distinctions begin to go. And democracy depends on those distinctions” (p. 108).
Conclusion
Making a conclusion it’s important to understand that the military presence of coalition troops will be kept in Iraq in close future. Inability to find consensus among local leaders, failure to restore peaceful life in the country quickly will only result in growing spending on this military campaign which losses it sense and purpose after 3 years of occupation. The only affect of war in Iraq is growing oil prices, which reached $75 for barrel, developing nuclear program of Iran who is afraid to become the next target of coalition and growth of fundamentalist anti-American propaganda in the countries of the Middle East. The war in Iraq appeared to be very profitable for a number of big American and European corporations and especially for oil corporations of Texas. But at the same time it showed weakness of official Washington to control state budget, prices and order in the country, especially after the terrible hurricane season of 2005.


References:
1. Mailer, Norman Why Are We At War? New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks 2003
2. Angus Reid Global Scan: Polls & Research Iraq War Expenses Raise Questions in U.S. September 22, 2005 available on web: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItem/itemID/9067
3. Clark, William Revisited The Real Reasons for the Upcoming War With Iraq: A Macroeconomic and Geostrategic Analysis of the Unspoken Truth available on web: http://www.ratical.org/ratville/CAH/RRiraqWar.html