Squamous cell carcinoma

This paper is devoted to squamous cell carcinoma investigation; we are going to look upon its definition, causes, treatment and some other factors. In detail we are going to treat squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer which is the result of sun damage for a long period of time. Some times squamous cell carcinoma can enlarge and then can damage some other near-by tissues. If it not treated then it can also move to distant organs. Thus it can happen on any part of a body, but often on those which are under sun influence. About 200,000 Americans suffer from squamous cell carcinoma annually. At the beginning squamous cell carcinoma is on the upper part of skin, if it is not treated it goes deeper.
Among the main causes of the disease sun expose was already mention, as a result usually it starts on the face, neck, hands, shoulders, rim of the year and lips. Another cause of squamous cell carcinoma might be chronic skin inflammation or some kind of medical conditions that are able to suppress the immune system of a person.
Cancer that starts in the mouth is called oral cancer. Oral cavity consists of lips, inside part of lips and cheeks, teeth, gums, front two thirds of a tongue, the floor below the tongue, hard palate and retromolar trigone.
About 90% of cancers of oral cavity are squamous cell carcinomas. In the case of this disease the lining of oral cavity is formed by squamous cells, i.e. flats cells which look like a scale. The name of the first stage of squamous cell cancer is carcinoma in situ, during this stage the cancer cells are only on the upper layer, when they go deeper into the layers of oral cavity, it is called invasive squamous cell cancer.
Concerning precancerous condition we should mention the following: actinic or solar keratosis, leukoplakia and Bowen’s disease. Actinic keratoses is considered to be the earliest from of squamous cell carcinoma, it can occur on the lips making them dry, cracked and pale. Leukoplakia is connected with patches inside the mouth or on the tongue, which are the results of constant smoking or tobacco usage, of rough edges on fillings or teeth.
Bowen’s disease is rather rare; the first signs of it are red patches looking like psoriasis or eczema.
Thus everybody should note that in case of any kind of strange skin development or some new growth it is necessary to go to the doctor immediately. It is quite possible that in time treating can prevent squamous cell carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma is diagnosed with the help of biopsy, this means removing of some part of the damaged issue and through examination under microscope. At early stages of lip and oral cavity cancer it can be treated with the help of surgery or radiation therapy. A combined treatment is applied in case if a tumor is deeper than 5 mm and there is an increased risk of local recurrence. For patients at advanced stages of the lip and oral cavity cancer clinical trials include radiation, chemotherapy together with surgery.
Overall, in this paper we briefly studied the main facts about squamous cell carcinoma, its causes, and the ways of prevention, localization, diagnostics and treatment. Thus this is a form of skin cancer, appearing as the result of sun exposure, usually on the places mostly open to some influence, is diagnosed through biopsy and treated with the help of the above mentioned techniques. The oral cavity type of cancer damages lips, tongue and the inner parts of the mouth.

Sources:

1. www. emedecine.com/DERM/topic401.htm
2. Geopfert H, Dichtel WJ, Perineural invasion in squamous cell skin carcinoma of the head and neck, 1984 , 542-547
3. Gray DT, Suman VJ, Trends in the population-based incidence os squamous cell carcinoma of the skin first diagnosed between 1984 and 1992, 735-740.

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