Philosophy Questions

1. Among the variety of philosophical views, it is quite difficult to find out which one is the best. Nevertheless, it is possible to estimate that the Georgist philosophy may be quite important today and applicable to the modern education. It should be pointed out that the Georgist philosophy was developed in response to the growing materialization and ‘marketization’ of the world. Obviously, these problems are still relevant today and, what is even more important, they affect dramatically the modern education.
Speaking about the essence of this philosophy, it should be said that the followers of Georgism paid a lot of attention to the role of art in human life and, among the most sincere followers of George’s ideas may be named Leo Tolstoy and Bernard Show. In fact, the supporters of this philosophy trended to humanize the modern world and subordinate economic needs to social ones. Also, it is worthy of mention that Tolstoy, for instance, insisted on the necessity to widely implement art in all spheres of life in order to make it really accessible to masses of people. According to him, it could really make society and social relations more humanistic.
Obviously, these ideas are extremely important to modern education, which tends to ‘marketization’ and dominance of material values over spiritual ones. Consequently, the practical implementation of the Georgist philosophy and its basic ideas could really shift the focus of the modern education from pragmatic, marketing values to humanistic and socially oriented ones. At the same time, the wider use of art in the modern education can also contribute to the aesthetic development of students which often remains practically ignored by many contemporary educators.
2. Historically, Marxism was contrasting to the dominating capitalist ideology and that was one of the major reasons of criticism of this philosophical movement. At the same time, it is not just a difference from traditional capitalist ideologies that provoked criticism of Marxism but also the basic ideological concepts which, actually, targeted at the complete change of the existing social order. In fact, the major ideological tenets of Marxism remain unchangeable even at the present epoch. In this respect, it should be said that one of the conceptual positions of Marxism is he necessity of social revolution which should totally change the relations that exist in society. To put it more precisely, Marxists stand on the ground that capitalist system is totally unjust and is based on the exploitation of vast masses of people by a limited, privileged group or class that dominates in the society. In the result of such social injustice and inequality, antagonism between the dominating and dominated classes is inevitable and should result in the social revolution, which is supposed to be realized by the force of proletariat, according to classics of the Marxist theory.
After the social revolution, Marxists insist on the implementation of structural and systematic changes in society. To put it more precisely, firstly, it will be necessary to forbid the right of private property and deprive capitalist of the control over the means of production. Instead, they suggest the establishment of social control over the means of production and property. Consequently, Marxists believe that the new classless society will be able to live in harmony since individuals, being free of capitalist binds, such as private property, will be able to develop their skills and abilities according to their own will. In such a way, Marxism undermines the basic concept of capitalism – the private property.
3. At first glance schooling and education are synonymous terms, but in actuality, the difference between them is quite substantial. In fact, schooling is a narrower term compared to education and basically it implies students’ academic development in the course of their study at school. In such a way, schooling is mainly focused on the learning process as a purely academic activity which, though, may be related to some school activities. It is possible to estimate that schooling mainly implies that students are viewed in the context of their study at school, being practically objects of the learning process. In this respect, it should be said that education seems to be a larger term that involves not only academic and school activities but also implies the development of students as personalities that means that students are rather viewed as relatively independent subjects of not only purely learning process but education at large. Practically, it means that education is actually a lifetime lasting process that is not limited by certain age, for instance. Moreover, education also implies not only the development of academic knowledge and skills but also the harmonious development of students including academic knowledge, social development, moral and ethic views, etc.
4. In fact, it is hardly possible to disagree with the words of William Arthur Ward because teaching is a very complicated process and, at the present days, it is obviously not enough to simply clearly explain the learning material and deliver it to students. Nowadays, it is also necessary that students really understand the learning material and, what is even more important, that they are really inspired by their teacher, by what they learn and how they do it. In such a way, it should be said that good teachers can explain that is really important because not all teachers can clearly convey their ideas and learning material. At the same time, students cannot always adequately perceive the explanations of teacher whatsoever good they. This is why students need that a teacher could also demonstrate in practice how this learning material he/she teaches can be applied in a real life situation. However, the good understanding of the learning material is not the ultimate goal of the modern education. In actuality, the main goal of education is to make students able and willing to learn during their lifetime even in their adulthood and, in such a situation, it is only the greatest or excellent teacher who can inspire their students, to provoke the interests and the desire to learn more. However, it is worthy of noting that without clear explanation and good demonstration, even the greatest teacher cannot inspire his/her students.
5. Nowadays, a good teaching rather resembles some art than just a regular work, though this is true not only for the present epoch, but it was always one of the basic conditions of good teaching. To put it more precisely, a good teaching cannot be based only on some knowledge of a subject, pedagogic, various methods of teaching, knowledge of children’s psychology, etc., but it also implies creativity, though all the factors previously mentioned are also of the utmost importance. It should be said that purely professional knowledge and skills are the basis for a good teaching. In this respect, it should be said that a teacher should know his/her subject well, perfectly know the current trends in education and perspectives of its further development, possess an arsenal of various methods that he/she could use while teaching the subject, and naturally, know students’ psychology. The latter is really important because a good teaching implies an ability of a teacher to find an individual approach to each student in the classroom that means the knowledge of his/her current knowledge, skills and abilities, psychological peculiarities, and socio-cultural background. At the same time such a basis, needs creativity in order to construct an effective system of teaching that could identify, develop, and stimulate students’ skills and abilities. It proves beyond a doubt that each classroom and each student is unique and different from others. This is why a good teaching is impossible without teachers’ ability to modify and change their work in accordance with the concrete class or student and this is practically impossible without creative approach to teaching.
6. Basically, any textbook should meet the main goals of education and correspond to the current educational demands. Practically it means that, first of all, the textbook must correspond to the students’ level of development. In other words, ideally, the textbook should be adapted to students’ age and knowledge. Otherwise, it could be hardly or, to put it more precisely, adequately perceived by students. Furthermore, the textbook should be well-structured in such a way that students could gradually develop their skills and acquire new knowledge through transition from easier learning material to more complicated one. It is also very important that the textbook is really interesting for students since one of its major purposes should be the maintenance of students interest to the subject and to what they actually learn. At the same time, the textbook should not provide students with ample information on the learning material. What is meant here is the fact that the textbook should provide students with some basic knowledge of the learning material but, at the same time, evoke their interest to what they learn and stimulate their desire to find more information on the subject they learn. Finally, it should be said that the textbook cannot be a universal book where students can find answers to all the questions but it must prepare students to get ready to find additional material in some extra sources, but the textbook and, in this respect, some useful references or links within the textbook could be quite helpful.

1. Aller, P. The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History. New York: New Publishers, 1992.
2. Compayri, Gabriel and Mary D. Frost. Horace Mann and the Public School in the United States, New York: New Publishers, 2002.
3. Parkays F.W. and G. Hass. Curriculum Planning, LA: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.
4. Rebore Ronald W. Human Resources Administration in Education, LA: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
5. Rosen, Sidney (ed.). My Voice Will Go With You: The Teaching Tales of Milton H. Erickson, M.D., New York: Touchstone, 1991.
6. Ward, William Arthur. Fountains of faith: The words of William Arthur Ward, New York: Routledge, 1994.

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